NSET Resource Page
For Technical Support Please Call (+1) 859-317-9213 or
IMPORTANT! Before beginning the NSET device technique, please read carefully the: NSET Technical Support Letter, NSET Instructions, NSET Helpful Hints, and NSET FAQs.
• NSET Technical Support Letter [pdf only]
• NSET Instructions [pdf]
• NSET Helpful Hints [pdf]
• NSET Frequently Asked Questions [pdf]
• NSET Publications
• NSET Presentations
The NSET™ Device is manufactured in the USA by an FDA Registered Medical Device Manufacturer and ISO 13485:2003 registered company and is EtO (Ethylene Oxide) sterilization processed. Patent Information: Non-Surgical Embryo Transfer Method and Apparatus, United States Patent 9,615,903.
NSET™ Device Instructions for Embryo Transfer in Mice
Catalogue # 60010
EtO (Ethylene Oxide) Sterilization Processed
10 Devices per Box (Devices are individually packaged with 1 small and 1 large speculum in each sealed pouch.)
This device is used for ethical transcervical transfer of embryos into mice. For research purposes only. Not intended for human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic uses.
Devices are single use only. Discard after use.
Prior to NSET Transfer
Standard methodologies for mouse embryo manipulations and mouse breeding techniques are recommended (1). Blastocyst stage embryos are recommended for transfer with the NSET device. Embryos may be transferred in M2 or KSOM medium. Pseudopregnant female recipient mice should be 2.5dpc (days post-coitum).
The NSET Demonstration Video
The demonstration video can be downloaded. This video demonstrates how easily mouse uterine embryo transfer can be accomplished using the NSET™ (Non-Surgical Embryo Transfer) Device for Mice.
- Place a 15μl drop of culture medium onto the lid of a 60 mm tissue culture dish (Falcon 353002, or similar).
- Load 12–20 blastocysts into the medium using a standard embryo handling pipette. (Note: optimal number of embryos to transfer will vary depending upon mouse strain and manipulations embryos have received.)
- Secure the NSET device onto a P2 pipette that has been set to 1.8μl. (Recommended pipettes are the Pipette Rainin Classic PR2, 0.1-2μl or Gilson Pipetman P2, 0.2-2μl.)
- Press pipette plunger to first stop, lower tip of the NSET device into medium and slowly pull embryos into the tip. Remove NSET device tip from the medium.
- Carefully set pipette to 2.0μl to create a small air bubble at NSET tip to help ensure embryos stay inside device tip during insertion into the mouse. Gently lay pipette with loaded tip aside (near cage) for use in step #9.
- Place the unanesthetized recipient female on top of a cage with a wire rack, allowing the mouse to “grab” the cage bar surface. Grasp the base of the tail using thumb and forefinger, and angle the tail upward while lightly pressing the base of the tail with the opposite edge of the hand.
- Gently place small speculum into mouse’s vagina.
- Optional: Remove small speculum and replace with the large speculum. If desired, use an adequate light source and visualize the cervix.
- While holding the female mouse with one hand as described in step #6, carefully pick up the pipette and gently insert the NSET device tip into the speculum and through the cervix. Once NSET device hub contacts speculum, expel embryos by pressing plunger.
- Gently remove NSET device without releasing pipette plunger and remove speculum. Return mouse to cage. No post-procedure monitoring is required.
1) Behringer R, Gertsenstein M, Nagy KV, Nagy A. 2014. Manipulating the Mouse Embryo: A Laboratory Manual, Fourth Edition. Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
This product is intended for research purposes only.
CAUTION: Not intended for human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic uses.
Purchase does not include or carry any right to resell or transfer this product either as a stand-alone product or as a component of another product.
PARATECHS CORPORATION LIMITED WARRANTY
ParaTechs warrants that, at the time of shipment, the Product will conform to the specifications that accompany the Product. This warranty limits ParaTechs’ liability to replacement of the Product. PARATECHS MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THE PRODUCT; INCLUDING ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE PRODUCT DOES NOT INFRINGE ANY PROPRIETARY RIGHTS OF ANY THIRD PARTY.
NSET Helpful Hints
The following are hints and suggestions from our scientists, technicians and customers which have proved helpful.
- Read all “Helpful Hints” and the NSET instruction insert carefully before beginning your NSET trials. The instruction insert can be found in each box of NSET.
- Prior to actual experiments, practice the NSET technique on 2.5 dpc pseudopregnant mice without embryos.
- NSET is designed to fit snugly on a Rainin Classic PR2, 0.1-2µl or Gilson Pipetman P2, 0.2-2µl pipette for loading embryos and precise measurement of media into the tip of the device.
- We recommend that you only use mice that are not sedated. This makes it easier to get the mouse in a natural position to find and enter the cervix.
- The NSET device is only able to pass the cervix during certain phases of estrus and at 2.5 dpc in pseudopregnant mice. Therefore we strongly recommend the use of 2.5 dpc pseudopregnant mice (after the plug has fallen out) for training purposes and embryo transfers using the NSET device.
- We use CD1 mice and highly recommend using this strain for your pseudopregnant recipients. We suggest using mice that weigh ≥26g and at least 60 days old.
- Embryos should be incubated to blastocyst stage (3.5 days) since the device transfers them to one of the uterine horns and not the oviduct. Some end users have been successful using morula embryos.
- Select a media you have used which gives you the best success in incubating your embryos. For example, use KSOM medium (or other desired culture media) and transfer 12 to 20 embryos.
- Gooseneck lighting is highly recommended to help locate the cervical opening.
- We suggest using conscious, calm, and unagitated mice. The female mouse in the demonstration video www.paratechs.com/nset is not sedated.
- We find it relatively easy to keep the female still and reduce squirming by placing the mouse on top of the cage so she can grasp the wires. Use the holding technique as demonstrated in the video. (http://www.paratechs.com/nset.htm)
- We do not recommend the use of lubricants. You may use sterile water or culture media to moisten the specula then shake off excess before insertion into the vagina, but even this is unnecessary.
- Insert small speculum first, remove, then insert larger speculum. The mouse will innately push the speculum out a little. Gently press it back in place so the NSET device can pass through the cervix and into one of the uterine horns.
- Be patient and do not apply too much pressure when finding and penetrating the cervix. This could cause tissue damage and will likely bend the NSET device making it nearly impossible to use. If the first attempt to insert the NSET is not in the correct location, gently reposition the device and repeat.
- Embryo loss may occur if tip gets bent due to too much pressure asserted while finding the cervical opening. Again, gentle repeated attempts are pertinent to NSET success.
- You will know the device is properly inserted through the cervix into the uterus when the hub of the NSET device touches the end of the larger speculum.
- To expel your embryos press the pipette plunger all the way down. Do not release plunger.
- Immediately remove NSET without releasing pipette plunger. If plunger is released prior to removal, some embryos could be pulled back into the tip.
- Inspection of the NSET tip under a microscope after use is good practice. The clear tip NSET allows visualization inside the tip.
The device is designed for a one-time use only. Repeated use will clog the NSET tip with cervical tissue which could lead to unfavorable results. Reuse also renders the catheter pliable and no longer rigid enough to pass the cervix, thus depositing embryos in the vagina of the recipient mouse. Contact us with any questions by phone or email firstname.lastname@example.org. We are always happy to help.
NSET Frequently Asked Questions
ParaTechs does not recommend using an NSET device for more than one transfer. Tissue from the mouse reproductive tract tends to clog the catheter and repeated use causes the device to bend and become less efficient. When the device is used multiple times there will be a noticeable drop in the success rate of embryo transfer.
2. What mouse strain should I use as my embryo recipients?
We strongly recommend the use of 2.5 dpc pseudopregnant mice for both training purposes and embryo transfers using the NSET device. It is possible for the NSET device to pass through the cervix of a pseudopregnant mouse 1.5 dpc. However, the success rate of embryo transfer at this time has been shown to be lower than using the recommended 2.5 dpc pseudopregnant female.
4. What developmental stage should my embryos be for transfer?
Embryos should be in a later developmental stage than the reproductive tract of the pseudopregnant female. For instance, blastocysts (e3.5 days after fertilization) should be transferred into a 2.5 dpc pseudopregnant recipient.
5. Is anesthesia required to perform the NSET procedure?
No. ParaTechs does not recommend the use of anesthesia. A calm conscious animal can be positioned so that the NSET device catheter can easily pass the cervix. The mouse in the demonstration video is not anesthetized: www.paratechs.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/video/ParaTechs1.mp4. Using an unanesthetized mouse also makes the procedure faster and easier while eliminating the risks and stress of anesthesia*. Anesthesia may be helpful for training purposes, but need not be used under ordinary conditions.
6. Should I use a lubricant during the NSET procedure?
No. Lubricants can clog the NSET catheter and prevent the correct placement of embryos in the uterine horn. The specula may be moistened with sterile water or culture media prior to insertion, but even this is unnecessary. If moistening the specula, be sure to shake off any excess moisture before inserting the devices into the vagina.
7. I’m having trouble locating and passing through the cervix. What should I do?
Be sure that your recipient female is 2.5 dpc pseudopregnant. Use a good light source to inspect and locate the cervical opening before inserting the NSET catheter, as this will help you position the device correctly. It may be helpful to practice passing through the cervix of 2.5 dpc pseudopregnant females before attempting embryo transfer.
8. How many embryos should I transfer into each recipient mouse?
For most transfers, ParaTechs recommends transferring 12-20 embryos to each recipient mouse.
9. I performed a non-surgical embryo transfer, but when I removed the NSET device, the catheter was bent. What happened?
A bent catheter likely means that the catheter did not enter the cervix or that you applied too much pressure while trying to locate the cervical opening. If the catheter is bent it is unlikely that the embryos were deposited into the uterine horn of the mouse. It is important to use gentle pressure when locating the cervical opening.
10. Can I use mice multiple times as embryo recipients?
Studies by ParaTechs have shown that it is possible to perform multiple NSET procedures on a female recipient and obtain up to three litters. However, there was a decrease in pregnancy rate and embryo transfer efficiency after the first litter.
11. Does the NSET device have other applications?
Yes. The NSET device can also be used as a novel method for effective transfer of substances for studies of uterine physiology and bacterial infection**.
12. Can the NSET device be used for Artificial Insemination (AI)?
Yes. The NSET device can also be used to deliver sperm to a recipient to facilitate AI. Please see the article below by Stone et al. (2015). Please email us email@example.com if you would like to receive the protocol.
*Reference to NSET Publication for Murine Embryo Transfer
**Reference to NSET Publications for Murine Pathogen and Material Transfer.
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Stone BJ, Steele KH, and Fath-Goodin A. (2015). A rapid and effective nonsurgical artificial insemination protocol using the NSETTM device for sperm transfer in mice without anesthesia. Transgenic Research. 24(4):775-781. #0000ff;”>[Article] | [PMC4504984]
Avella MA, Baibakov B, and Dean J. (2014). A single domain of the ZP2 zona pellucida protein mediates gamete recognition in mice and humans. J Cell Biol. 205(6): 801–809. [PMC4068139]
*Navarrete FA, Alvau A, Lee HC, Levin LR, Buck J, Martin-De Leon P, Santi CM, Krapf D, Mager J, Fissore RA, Salicioni AM, Darszon A and Visconti PE. (2016). Transient exposure to calcium ionophore enables in vitro fertilization in sterile mouse models. Scientific Reports. 6: 33589. [PMC5024339]
*Jimenez R, Melo EO, Davydenko O, Ma J, Mainigi M, Franke V, and Schultz RM. (2015). Maternal SIN3A Regulates Reprogramming of Gene Expression During Mouse Preimplantation Development. Biol Reprod. 93(4): 89. [PMC4711907]
*Kaufman MR, Albers RE, Keoni C, Kulkarni-Datar K, Natale DR, and Brown TL. (2014). Important aspects of placental-specific gene transfer. Theriogenology. 82(7):1043-8. [PMC25110063]
*Ali RB, van der Ahé F, Braumuller TM, Pritchard C, Krimpenfort P, Berns A, and Huijbers IJ. (2014). Improved pregnancy and birth rates with routine application of nonsurgical embryo transfer. Transgenic Research. 23(4):691-695. [PMC4053600]
*Tian X, Anthony K, Neuberger T, and Diaz FJ. (2014). Preconception Zinc Deficiency Disrupts Postimplantation Fetal and Placental Development in Mice. Biology of Reproduction. 90(4) 83. [PMC4076385]
*Mainigi MA, Olalere D, Burd I, Sapienza C, Bartolomei M, and Coutifaris C. (2014). Peri-Implantation Hormonal Milieu: Elucidating Mechanisms of Abnormal Placentation and Fetal Growth. Biol Reprod. 90(2): 26. [PMC4076405]
*de Waal E, Mak W, Calhoun S, Stein P, Ord T, Krapp C, Coutifaris C, Schultz RM, and Bartolomei MS. (2014). In Vitro Culture Increases the Frequency of Stochastic Epigenetic Errors at Imprinted Genes in Placental Tissues from Mouse Concepti Produced Through Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Biol Reprod. 90(2): 22. [PMC4076403]
*Moreno-Moya JM, Ramírez, L, Vilella F, Martínez S, Quinonero A, Noguera I, Pellicer A, and Simon C. (2014). Complete method to obtain, culture, and transfer mouse blastocysts nonsurgically to study implantation and development. Fertility and Sterility Forum. [PMC24355048]
*Steele KH, Hester JM, Stone BJ, Carrico KM, Spear BT, and Fath-Goodin A. (2013). Non-surgical embryo transfer device (NSET) is less stressful than surgery for embryo transfer in mice. JAALAS. 52(1): 17-21. [PMC3548196]
*Fath-Goodin A and Spear B. (2012). A Non-Surgical Embryo Transfer (NSET) Device for Producing Gene-Modified Mice. NIH: Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) Project Number 8R44OD010958-03. [Project Information]
*Woodford C (2011). Use of a non-surgical embryo transfer (NSET) device as an alternative to rodent surgical embryo transfer (ET) and caesarian re-derivation. Animal Technology and Welfare. April; 10(1): 42-43. http://www.iat.org.uk/
*Green M, Bass S, Spear B (2009). A device for the simple and rapid transcervical transfer of mouse embryos eliminates the need for surgery and potential post-operative complications. Biotechniques. Nov; 47(5): 919-24. doi: 10.2144/000113257 [Article] [PDF] [PMC4506771]
**Rodolfo D. Vicetti Miguel, Nirk E. Quispe Calla, Stephen D. Pavelko, Thomas L. Cherpes (2016). Intravaginal Chlamydia trachomatis Challenge Infection Elicits TH1 and TH17 Immune Responses in Mice That Promote Pathogen Clearance and Genital Tract Damage. PLoS One. 2016; 11(9): e0162445. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162445 [Article] [PMC5015975]
**Georg Stary, Andrew Olive, Aleksandar F. Radovic-Moreno, David Gondek, David Alvarez, Pamela A. Basto, Mario Perro, Vladimir D. Vrbanac, Andrew M. Tager, Jinjun Shi, Jeremy A. Yethon, Omid C. Farokhzad, Robert Langer, Michael N. Starnbach, Ulrich H. von Andrian (2015). A mucosal vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis generates two waves of protective memory T cells. Science. 2015 Jun 19; 348(6241): aa8205. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa8205 [Article] [PMC4605428]
**Karuna P. Karunakaran, Hong Yu, Xiaozhou Jiang, Queenie Chan, Kyung-Mee Moon, Leonard J. Foster, Robert C. Brunham (2015). Outer membrane proteins preferentially load MHC class II peptides: Implications for as a Chlamydia trachomatis T cell vaccine Vaccine. 2015 Apr 27; 33(18): 2159–2166. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.02.055 [Article] [PMC4390527]
**Catarina V. Nogueira, Xuqing Zhang, Nicholas Giovannone, Erica L. Sennott, Michael N. Starnbach (2015). Protective immunity against Chlamydia trachomatis can engage both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and bridge the respiratory and genital mucosae. J Immunol. 2015 Mar 1; 194(5): 2319–2329. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1402675 [Article] [PMC4340718]
**Lingli Tang, Zhangsheng Yang, Hongbo Zhang, Zhiguang Zhou, Bernard Arulanandam, Joel Baseman, Guangming Zhong (2014). Induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia muridarum intracervical infection in DBA/1j mice.
Vaccine. 2014 Mar 10; 32(12): 1407–1413. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.10.018 [Article] [PDF] [PMC3943569]
**Davila SJ, Olive AJ and Starnbach MN (2014). Integrin α4β1 is necessary for CD4+ T cell-mediated protection against genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The Journal of Immunology 192(9):4284-93. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1303238. [Article] [PMC3995848]
**Jianlin Chen, Hongbo Zhang, Zhou Zhou, Zhangsheng Yang, Yiling Ding, Zhiguang Zhou,Edward Zhong, Bernard Arulanandam, Joel Baseman, Guangming Zhong (2014). Chlamydial Induction of Hydrosalpinx in 11 Strains of Mice Reveals Multiple Host Mechanisms for Preventing Upper Genital Tract Pathology. PLOS One doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095076. [Article] [PMC3988139]
**Lingli Tang, Hongbo Zhang, Lei Lei, Siqi Gong, Zhiguang Zhou, Joel Baseman, Guangming Zhong (2013). Oviduct Infection and Hydrosalpinx in DBA1/j Mice Is Induced by Intracervical but Not Intravaginal Inoculation with Chlamydia muridarum. PLOS One doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071649. [Article]
**Gondek DC, Olive AJ, Stary G and Starnbach MN (2012). CD4+ T Cells Are Necessary and Sufficient To Confer Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in the Murine Upper Genital Tract. The Journal of Immunology 189(5):2441-1449. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1103032 [Article] [PMC3690950]
**Olive AJ, Gondek DC and Starnbach MN (2011). CXCR3 and CCR5 are both required for T Cell Mediated Protection against C. trachomatis Infection in the Murine Genital Mucosa. Mucosal Immunol. 4(2): 208-216. doi: 10.1038/mi.2010.58 [Article] [PMC3010299]
**Coers J, Gondek DC, Olive AJ, Rohlfing A, Taylor GA and Starnbach MN (2011). Compensatory T Cell Responses in IRG-Deficient Mice Prevent Sustained Chlamydia trachomatis Infections. PLoS Pathogens 7(6):e1001346. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001346 [Article] [PMC3121881]
**Barrette VF, M.A. Adams, B.A. Croy (2012). Endometrial decidualization does not trigger the blood pressure decline of normal early pregnancy in mice. Biol Reprod 86(3):66. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.111.096958 [Article] [PMC3380067]
*Reference to NSET Publication for Murine Embryo Transfer
**Reference to NSET Publications for Murine Pathogen and Material Transfer.
CARD-IP Mouse Sperm and Embryo Cryopreservation presentation by ParaTechs’ Director of NSET Technology, Dr. Barbara Stone, October24 – 28, 2016; Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. This one-week course presented a combination of lectures and intensive hands-on sessions to learn the most up-to-date CARD methods in mouse cryopreservation. Dr. Stone led the portion of the course, “Embryo Transfer and Artificial Insemination in Mice using the NSET Device”. The aim of this course was to introduce the newest CARD methods to researchers and technicians involved in mouse archiving and/or managing transgenic facilities and who are willing to implement these new methods in their work. These techniques were taught directly by the team that devised them. http://www.pasteur.fr/en/teaching/workshops/mouse-sperm-and-embryo-cryopreservation-course . View the history of the CARD courses here: http://www.mouse-ivf-training.com/archives/category/overseas. View Dr. Barbara Stone’s presentation PDF here: http://dl.pasteur.fr/fop/SSRzAR24/NSET_presentation_BS_10-28-16.pdf
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Cryo & Embryo Transfer Course, September 5-9, 2016. The Institute of Laboratory Animal Science and Biomodels Austria at the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna offer a comprehensive course on cryopreservation, embryo transfer and other methods of assisted reproduction in mice. The course was intended to give technicians and scientists state-of-the-art background knowledge and hands-on training in the methods routinely used at the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna.
National Center for Biological Sciences (NCBS), August 16-22, 2016, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bengaluru INDIA. ParaTechs’ Dr. Barbara Stone, Director of NSET Technology, gave a lecture presentation and hands-on workshop as a course instructor for the NSET Device Technology during the NCBS Animal Care and Resource Center Mouse Cryobiology / IVF Workshop.
During the 2016 District 5 AALAS Meeting, sponsored by the Southern Ohio Branch AALAS, Kendra Steele, Ph.D. presented advances in 3Rs practices for assisted reproductive techniques in rodents, “Using the NSET (device) for embryo transfer and artificial insemination in mice and rats”. The conference was held in Covington, Kentucky USA, May 11-13, 2016. [pdf]
During the 12th Transgenic Technology Meeting in Edinburgh Scotland, October 6-8, 2014, Dr. Barbara Stone presented the poster, “A Rapid and Effective Nonsurgical A.I. Protocol using the NSET Device for Sperm Transfer in Unanesthetized Mice.” For more information regarding the TT2014 meeting please visit the ISTT website at www.transtechsociety.org/tt2014.
Stone B, (2014) Embryo Transfer in Mice using the NSET Device. Presentation and Hands-on Workshop during the 2014 CARD-RPCI Mouse Sperm and Embryo Cryopreservation Course held at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA, Sept 15-19, 2014. http://www.transtechsociety.org/Buffalo/
Stone B, (2014) The Future of Mouse Embryo Transfer: Achieving the 3Rs with the NSET Device. Abstract presented during the 2014 District 5 AALAS Meeting held May 14-16, 2014, Lexington, Kentucky, USA. [pdf]
Steele K, Stone B, Hester J, Goodin A. (2014) Non-surgical Embryo Transfer in Mice Is An Easy, Effective, and Ethical Replacement For Surgery. Poster presented at the 2014 District 5 AALAS Meeting held May 14-16, 2014, Lexington, Kentucky, USA. [png]
Stone B. (2014) A Non-surgical Uterine Transfer Technique for Mouse Embryos after Cryopreservation, In Vitro Fertilization, ES-cell Injection, and Sperm during Artificial Insemination. Poster presented at the 2014 District 5 AALAS Meeting held May 14-16, 2014, Lexington, Kentucky, USA. [pdf]
Stone B, (2014) The Future of Mouse Embryo Transfer: Achieving the 3Rs with the NSET Device. Industry Track Presentation presented during the February 2014 Laboratory Animal Science BioConference Live [pdf] [video]
Steele K, Stone B, Hester J, Goodin A. (2013) Non-surgical Embryo Transfer in Mice Is An Easy, Effective, and Ethical Replacement For Surgery. Poster presented at: The 64TH AALAS National Meeting October 27-31, 2013 in Baltimore, MD. [png]
Stone B. (2013) Successful Use of the NSETTM Device for Non-surgical Uterine Transfer of Embryos or Sperm. Poster presented at: The 64TH AALAS National Meeting October 27-31, 2013 in Baltimore, MD and also during the Kentucky Innovation & Entrepreneurship Conference August 29, 2013. [pdf]
Steele K, Hester J, Stone B, Spear B, Goodin A. (2012) Non-surgical embryo transfer with the NSETTM device is a 3Rs refinement technique that reduces stress in CD-1 mice. Poster presented at: The 12th FELASA SECAL Congress. 2013 June 10-13; Barcelona Spain [pdf]
Stone B. (2013) Successful use of the NSET device for non-surgical transfer of blastocysts after in vitro fertilization, cryopreservation, or ES-cell injection and sperm transfer for artificial insemination. Poster presented at: The 11th Meeting of the International Society of Transgenic Technologies. 2013 February 25-27; Guangzhou China. [pdf]
Steele K, Hester J, Stone B, Spear B, Goodin A. (2012) Non-surgical embryo transfer with the NSETTM device is a 3Rs refinement technique that reduces stress in CD-1 mice. Poster presented at: The 14th annual NIH SBIR/STTR Conference. 2012 May 30-June 1; Louisville KY, USA. Also presented at AALAS National Meeting. 2012 November 6-8; Minneapolis MN, USA [pdf]
Damiani P, Coffee R, Boutin S, Vitale J, Grass D, Soerensen U. (2011) Production of Germfree Chimeric Mice using Non-surgical Embryo Transfer from Embryos Shipped Overnight in a Portable Incubator System. Poster presented at AALAS National Meeting. 2011 October 2-6. San Diego CA, USA.
Williams M. (2011). Rederivation of a Colony using non-surgical embryo transfer. Presentation given at 2011 ANZLAA 2011 Annual Conference. 2011 Sept. 14-16. Hobart Tasmania.